earth science

earth science

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Rural households in Vietnam engage in a broad range of activities outside the agricultural sector. On the one hand, these include wage employment in construction, industries and services. On the other hand, there are numerous business and self-employment activities, for example in trade and handicrafts. Motives for participation are as diverse as the activities themselves. They range from risks and shocks in the agricultural sector, to higher and more secure incomes, to the realization of business opportunities. In this dissertation,...


In many German districts, the integration of low-skilled workers into the labor market is becoming a business and economic challenge. Deficits in formal schooling and vocational training require company-based learning efforts in order to acquire professional skills and thus ensure the employability of workers in the long term. Using the example of the district of Cloppenburg in Lower Saxony, whose positive labor market development is considered a success story, especially for low and medium-skilled workers, four companies were selected that...